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Table of contents

Volume , Issue 2022
  1. Analyses of the hyoid bone position in orthognathic surgery
    Víctor Ravelo; Marcelo Parra & Sergio Olate -

    The position of the hyoid bone is related to vi- tal functions. The aim of this research was to analyze the change in the position of the hyoid bone related to the surgical movement in orthognathic surgery. 52 subjects were included; the diagnosis was determined according to facial analysis, being identified as class II or class III facial deformity. The subjects were treated by maxillary and mandibular surgery without chin surgery; cone beam computed tomography were realized pre-surgical and post-surgical to perform the analyses. Statistical studies was according to the type of va- riable considering a value of p<0.05 to obtain significant differences. The results demonstrated changes in the position of the hyoid bone at different levels; in class II subjects a significant change was observed in the vertical position of the hyoid bone and there was a rise of 4.45 mm (p=0.001); in class III subjects, no significant relationships were observed in terms of horizontal or vertical position. The transverse distance showed significant changes, reducing by 3.62 mm in the post-surgical stage (p=0.008). It is possible to conclude that orthognathic surgery causes changes in the location of the hyoid bone.

    KEY WORD: Hyoid bone, orthognathic surgery, osteotomy

    How to cite

    RAVELO V, PARRA M, OLATE S. Analyses of the hyoid bone position in orthognathic surgery. Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(1):1-6.

  2. Brown tumor of secondary hyperparathyroidism and expression in the head and neck. About a clinical case
    Hilda Moris Juan Vargas Nicolás Reyne Felipe Astorga Carlos Cortez -

    The brown tumor is a presentation of osteitis fibrosa cystica that represents a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy, mainly affecting the hands, feet, and craniofacial region. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of chronic kidney failure. A clinical case of a 32-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease dependent on hemodialysis is presented, who was evaluated in 2018 for a palatal and vertebral tumor, later did not attend controls and was reassessed in 2020, where it was evidenced the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and brown tumor in the calvarium, vertebra at the C7 level, maxilla and mandible, diagnosis confirmed by incisional biopsy together with clinical history, radiographic and laboratory tests that included serum levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone and phosphorus.

    KEY WORDS: Hyperparathyroidism, brown tumor; maxilla; mandible.

    How to cite

    MORIS H, VARGAS J, REYNE N, ASTORGA F, CORTEZ, C. Brown tumor of secondary hyperparathyroidism and expression in the head and neck. About a clinical case. Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(2):67-72.

  3. Migraine surgery
    Claudio Huentequeo M. Carolina Leal Alejandro Unibazo Z. Gonzalo Calbio M Juan Pablo Alister H. Sergio Olate M. -

    A migraine is a primary headache, and it could be a migraine with aura or without aura, whereas it must accomplish different requests. The trigeminal-vascular system is essential in migraine physiology through bidirectional sensibilization. Migraine surgery consists of a vascular or muscular decompression of the Trigeminal nerve afferent pathways; the surgical trigger points interruption or inhibition through the neurolysis orneurectomies. Migraine surgery works on different levels, depending on the severity of the pain. Local treatments have demonstrated migraine treatment by inhibiting or decompressing muscular trigger points as the botulinum toxin infiltration. This article aims to present the case of efficacy migraine surgery treatment.

    KEY WORDS: Migraine, migraine surgery, chronic migraine, myofascial pain, trigger points.

    How to cite

    HUENTEQUEO MC, LEAL C, UNIBAZO ZA, CALBIO MG, ALISTER HJP, OLATE MS. Cirugía de la migraña. Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(1):7-12.

  4. Epidemiological perspective of facial trauma in Ecuador
    Juan Fernando Naranjo-Vega Renata Alejandra Avecillas-Rodas Santiago José Reinoso-Quezada -

    ABSTRACT: Facial trauma (FT) due to vehicular accident is considered worldwide as a high impact event. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2013, reports that every year 50 million people suffer from trauma due to a vehicle accident. The objective is to determine the prevalence of FT due to vehicular accident with the data obtained in the main hospitals of the largest population cities in Ecuador and carry out an epidemiological framework in 2017. Were included 762 patients with facial trauma admitted to the emergency area of the 11 most representative hospitals in 8 Cities of Ecuador in 2017. The prevalence of Facial trauma in Ecuador was 3%. There was a predominance of male with 77.60%. Regarding the age, young adults (20-44 years) with 61.81% was the most prevalent. According to the type of vehicle, there was a predominance in cars with 58%. The upper third was the most affected with 46%. In conclusion, Ecuador needs to take measures to strengthen road safety, in order to create strategies to reduce current statistics and avoid this serious problem that entails serious injuries, disability or even death.

    KEY WORDS: Facial trauma, emergency, accident, Ecuador.

    How to cite

    NARANJO-VEGA JF, AVECILLAS-RODAS RA, REINOSO-QUEZADA SJ. Epidemiological perspective of facial trauma in Ecuador. Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(2):73-78.

  5. Sequelae treatment of cheilorhinoplasty using hyaluronic acid
    Andres Gaete Navarro Carlos Avendaño Mendoza Edgrado Pineda Taladriz -

    Since the discovery of hyaluronic acid (HA) and its multiple biological functions, it has awakened interest in different areas of medicine, such as ophthalmology, rheumatology and mainly dermatology and cosmetic surgery, among other specialties, with some clinical applications. Among the non-surgical regenerative and reconstructive facial procedures, HA dermal filler is one of the most used nowadays, since it performs a supplementary task in the regeneration and healing of tissues, by providing a structure that facilitates cell growth. The cleft lip and palate (FLAP) are the most prevalent congenital craniofacial defects, where patients with FLAP may present certain lip asymmetries even after surgical treatment with multiple surgeries, which could lead the patient to various psychological disorders. The biological characteristics, the safety and the almost null adverse effects include the HA as an excellent alternative for facial filler helping the aesthetics, functionality and psychological well-being of the patient through a less invasive and non-surgical process. The aim of this article is to present a clinical case with the use of injectable HA to correct the volumetric and aesthetic lip asymmetries produced in the post-surgical rehabilitation of patients with fissures and discusses its use.

    KEY WORDS: Hyaluronic acid, dermal filler, cleft lip, cleft palate, facial aesthetics.

    How to cite

    GAETE NA, AVENDAÑO MC, PINEDA TE. Sequelae treatment of cheilorhinoplasty using hyaluronic acid. Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(1):13-17

  6. Functional and surgical anatomy of the nasolabial angle and the use in aesthetic rhinoplasty
    José Héctor Soria Ricardo Jorge Losardo Alejandro Tuero1 Gabriel Noé -

    Two anatomical structures are described in the nasolabial angle: the anterior nasal spine and the depressor septi nasi muscle, which maintain a certain balance between them. Changes of its morphology cause unsightly situations. Between January 2014 and December 2018, of the 200 patients was submitted to rhinoplasty, 79 of them had variations in the nasolabial angle, which were classified into three grades. As results, 50% (n = 39) was in the level 1, 40% (n=32) in the level 2 and 10% (n = 8) in the level 3. Surgeries were performed with specific technique for each group. The surgery focused on the anterior nasal spine and the depressor septi nasi muscle. Aesthetic balance was recovered in the nasolabial angle.

    KEY WORDS: Nasolabial angle, nasal spine, depressor septi nasi muscle, rhinoplasty, profiloplasty, aesthetic surgery.

    How to cite

    SORIA JH, LOSARDO RJ, TUERO A, NOÉ A. Functional and surgical anatomy of the nasolabial angle and the use in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(2):79-87.

  7. The hygyene and quaility of sleep
    Ivan González Díaz -

    ABSTRACT: Sleep hygiene is the set of environmental recommendations aimed at promoting healthy sleep, such as diet, exercising regularly, eliminating noise from the environment and maintaining a regular schedule. Quality sleep characterized by being comfortable and sufficient helps alleviate daily physical and mental fatigue and restore metabolic functions. The correct quality of sleep requires changes in posture throughout the night. The main function of the pillow is to support the cervical spine in a neutral position, in addition to avoiding the accumulation of physical fatigue during sleep, it assists in movements, re- duces noise and vibrations, in addition to relieving pressure on the head. When an adequate sleep cycle is suppressed, symptoms such as the presence of daytime fatigue, psychomotor impairment, accidents, deterioration of physical and psychological health appear. Poor quality sleep is prevalent in 3-16% of the general population. Characterized by symptoms of awakening, such as neck pain, stiffness, headache, shoulder and arm pain. Poor quality of sleep cau- ses increased sensitivity to pain, while the presence of pain during the day will be followed by a poor-quality night. People with poor quality of sleep are more susceptible to temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Approximately 33% of the population is affected by temporomandibular joint dysfunction, of which up to 70% refers poor quality sleep. The aim of this research is to know some variables included in hygiene and quality to sleep.

    KEY WORDS: Sleep quality, temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

    How to cite

    Gonzalez, D I. The hygyene and quaility of sleep. Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(1):18-22.

  8. Dental crowding and/or spacing in orthognathic surgery: Incorporating premolar extractions in the treatment of class III malocclusion. A review and case series
    Asher Adamec Waleed S Zaid Víctor Ravelo Ziyad S Haidar -

    Craniofacial profile, maxilla-mandibular relations, dento- alveolar bone discrepancies, skeletal maturation and dental asymmetries are important elements of an orthodontic and orthognathic diagnosis and treatment planning. For proper position and angulation of teeth, orthognathic surgery aims to correct dental crowding, spacing, misalignment and rotations of teeth, via tooth/teeth extractions for example, as part of the umbrella orthodontic and orthognathic interventional treatment plan. Indeed, exodontia is often needed to relieve moderate to severe crowding (arch- length discrepancies) and create the needed space for the proper alignment of the dentition and eventual functional occlusion. Herein, first and second premolar extractions are often prescribed, preferably when other methods have been exhausted. Yet the discussion regarding the use of premolar extractions is not whether exodontia should be performed, yet rather what malocclusion class, tooth-size and tooth-space discrepancy (including bi- maxillary protrusion and severe crowding in maxilla and mandible) indicate premolar extractions, when the intervention should be done, and whether to extract the first or second premolar. Therefore, in this article we highlight the premolar exodontia considerations for orthodontic and orthognathic treatment planning (pre-treatment) via discussing the basic mechanics and advantages of intra-/inter-arch movements. This is followed by presenting clinical cases exhibiting the incorporation of premolar extractions in (a) pre-surgical orthodontic treatment; (b) surgical plan and intervention; and (c) post-surgical outcome and prognosis. Alternative techniques and treatment options useful in tackling skeletal and dental malocclusion, including lateral body and sub-apical osteotomy(ies), that might consider integrating first and second premolar extractions, are also presented, herein.

    KEY WORDS: Orthodontics; Orthognathic surgery; Corrective Jaw Surgery; Class III.

    How to cite

    ADAMEC A, ZAID WS, RAVELO V, HAIDAR ZS. Dental crowding and/or spacing in orthognathic surgery: Incorporating premolar extractions in the treatment of class III malocclusion. A review and case series.Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(2):88-102.

  9. Rotational flap of the sternocleidomastoid muscle as an alternative in mandibular reconstruction
    Ivan González Díaz Arturo de Jesús Chávez Caballero -

    El músculo esternocleidomastoideo se localiza en la región late- ral del cuello. Su irrigación procede de las arterias occipital, tiroidea superior, carótida externa y supraescapular. Su inervación lo da el nervio accesorio que puede o no penetrar el músculo. El colgajo rotacional de esternocleidomastoideo fue descrito por Jianu en 1909, para manejo de parálisis facial. Utilizado por Owens desde 1955 para cubrir defectos del tercio inferior de la cara. La mandíbula es una estructura esencial del esqueleto facial y la mejor opción para su reconstrucción es la utilización de colgajos libres microvascularizados, sin embargo, ciertas condiciones pueden inhabilitar dicha opción (condición sistémica o vascular, radiación). La utilización del colgajo rotacional de esternocleidomastoideo en conjunto con la hemimandibulectomía trae consigo la ventaja funcional y estética. Permite obtener simetría, inclusive rehabilitación protésica debido al proceso de fibrosis que sufre el músculo. La reconstrucción ideal debe de sustituir todos los planos, lo cual no siempre es posible, por lo cual se deben de determinar diferentes alternativas que sean menos invasivas, como el presente ejemplo del colgajo rotacional de esternocleidomastoideo que es de gran ayuda para lograr simetría y evitar la exposición del material de osteosíntesis. El colgajo rotacional del músculo esternocleidomastoideo es una alternativa importante para mejorar el resultado estético y funcional del paciente que conlleva algún tipo de resección mandibular.

    PALABRAS CLAVE: Colgajo rotacional, músculo esternocleidomastoideo, colgajo libre microvascularizado

    How to cite

    GONZÁLEZ DI, CHÁVEZ CAJ. Rotational flap of the sternocleidomastoid muscle as an alternative in mandibular reconstruction. Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(1):23-29.

  10. Lower transconjunctival blepharosplasty with supraperiosteal fat transposition
    Sebastián Zapata Orellana -

    The aim of the classic transcutaneous lower blepharoplasty was to eliminate the herniated lower fat packages; however, fat removal can generate a sunken or cadaverous-looking eye and, in turn, the transcutaneous approach is associated with a higher rate of retractile-type scarring complications. The transconjunctival approach with the fat pad transposition technique has been our technique of choice in the surgical treatment of aging in the lower eyelid. Indications, techniques and clinical results are presented in this article.

    KEY WORDS: Transconjunctival lower lid blepharoplasty, infraorbital fat, fat transposition.

    How to cite

    ZAPATA OS. Lower transconjunctival blepharosplasty with supraperiosteal fat transposition. Craniofac Res. 2022; 1(2):103-108.